The Renault Zoe (sometimes stylized as ZOE and pronounced as "Zoé") is a five-door superminielectric car produced by the French manufacturer Renault. Renault originally unveiled, under the Zoe name, a number of different concept cars. Initially in 2005 as the Zoe City Car and later as the Zoe Z.E. electric concept was shown in two different versions in 2009 and 2010 under the Renault Z.E. name. A production ready version of the Zoe was shown at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show.
Retail customer deliveries began in France in December 2012, followed in 2013 by several European countries. Since 2013 the Zoe has been the all-time top selling all-electric car in the French market, with 27,155 units registered by June 2016. Zoe sales had passed 50,000 worldwide by that month. The Zoe was the top selling all-electric car in Europe for two years running, 2015 and 2016, and also topped European sales in the broader plug-in electric car segment in 2016. The Zoe ranked among the world's top 10 best-selling plug-in electric cars for two years in a row, 2015 and 2016. Since inception, global sales totaled almost 182,000 units through December 2019.
The first production Zoes had a 22 kWhlithium-ionbattery pack that delivers a range between 210 km (130 mi) and 240 km (150 mi) under the NEDC cycle. In September 2016, Renault announced the introduction of new higher range model with a 41 kWh lithium-ion battery, increasing the range to 400 km (250 mi) under the NEDC cycle. In mid 2018 a new model with increased motor power of 80 kW (110 hp), was announced as the ZE 40 R110. In mid 2019, the ZE 50 R135 was announced, with a 55 kWh battery pack (52 usable) and 100 kW (130 hp) motor, and CCS charging; the final production-ready model was shown at the Frankfurt Motor Show and deliveries started in January 2020.
The Renault Zoe City Car concept (or Z17) was shown at the 2005 Geneva Motor Show featuring 3 seats, the 3.45 m long open top vehicle was proposed as an urban focused car. This Zoe had no connection with the later electric Zoe concept to follow four years later.
Zoe Concept (2009)
The Renault Zoe Concept was shown to the public in 2009 at the Frankfurt Motor Show to show the company's vision for a Clio sized electric car. It was powered by a 71 kW (95 hp) electric motor (mounted at the front) and lithium-ion batteries (under the seats). It was estimated it would have a range of 160 kilometres (99 mi) and a top speed of 145 km/h (90 mph), and could be charged at a conventional 230 V socket, or fast-charged from a high-voltage supply to 80 percent in only 20 minutes. A third innovative option was to swap the batteries for a new pack at a Renault Quickdrop centre.
The design was tear-drop shaped featuring a see-through roof features solar panels which run the air-conditioning system and gull-wing doors. A new climate control system was also shown, developed with L'Oréal, which could spray essential oils into the interior to cut out harmful exterior smells, or rehydrate the interior to prevent skin drying out.
Zoe Preview (2010)
The Zoe Preview, a substantially revised version of the Zoe concept, was shown to the public at the 2010 Paris Motor Show, and was claimed to be a near-definitive representation (90% showroom ready) of the final version of the car. Many of the existing design features of the 2009 concept model were discarded such as the gull-wing doors.
The technical specifications had changed from the 2009 version with the power of the electric motor reduced to 66 kW (89 hp), a reduced top speed of 145 km/h (90 mph), but still with a 160 kilometres (99 mi) range. It was suggested that the Zoe ZE would be priced from €15,000.
Zoe E-Sport (2017)
The Zoe E-sport is a hot hatch electric car concept unveiled at the 2017 Geneva Motor Show. It has an all-wheel drive design with two electric motors, each one powering an axle. The combined power from both is 340 kW (456 bhp) and the torque 640 N⋅m (472 lbf⋅ft). The lithium-ion battery package weighs 450 kg (992 lb) and is on the rear. The car, weighing 1,450 kg (3,197 lb), has a carbon fibre chassis, racing brakes and equipment, and a double wishbone suspension on both axles.
Renault Zoe City Car 2005
Renault Zoe Z.E. Concept 2009
Renault Zoe Preview 2010
Renault Zoe E-Sport 2017
Renault Zoe (ZE 40) Dynamique in Mars Red
The production version of the Zoe was announced in March 2012 at the Geneva Motor Show. Similar to the 2010 version and the design credited to Jean Semeriva, it is a five-door supermini at 4080 mm long, a little longer than the Renault Clio. Retail customer deliveries began in limited number in France in December 2012, and Renault planned to increase availability during the first quarter of 2013. The first Zoe was delivered to Arnaud Montebourg, French Minister of Industrial Recovery. The Zoe is produced at Flins on the same assembly line as the Renault Clio and Nissan Micra. About 170 Zoes are made per day.
In France the Zoe pricing starts at €20,700 (US$27,250) before applying the existing €6,300 (US$8,300) tax incentive, plus a monthly fee for the battery. The cost of leasing the battery for 36 months starts from €79/month (US$104/month) for an annual distance travelled of 12,500 km (7,800 mi) and includes comprehensive breakdown assistance.
The Zoes produced until June 2015 are powered by a 22 kWhlithium-ion battery pack weighing 275 kg, driving a 65 kW (87 bhp; 88 PS) synchronous electric motor supplied by Continental (the Q210). Maximum torque is 220 N·m (162 lb-ft) with a top speed of 135 km/h (84 mph). The NEDC cycle range is 210 km (130 mi). Renault estimates that in suburban use, the Zoe can achieve around 100 km (62 mi) in cold weather and 150 km (93 mi) in temperate conditions. The car features a charging system called "Caméléon" (Chameleon) charger that allows the Zoe to be charged at any level of power, taking between 30 minutes and nine hours. The particular type of grid system in parts of Norway with a different potential for the protective ground requires a special charger, which is included with all Zoes in Norway for summer 2015.
In June 2015, Renault announced the introduction of a new, smaller electric motor called the R240, manufactured at its Cléon engine plant. The new motor has the same power and torque as the Q210 unit with an extended NEDC cycle range of 240 km (150 mi). However, the Q210 would still be available as the R240 did not allow quick charging.
In October 2016 at the Paris Motor Show, Renault unveiled a 41 kWh lithium-ion battery called the ZE 40, weighing 300 kg (661 lb). The battery was developed by Renault and its partner LG Chem, and is assembled at the Renault's Flins plant. It is mounted on Zoes using the R75/90 motor (formerly R240, the name now making reference to the motor power output range between 55 kW (75 PS) and 66 kW (90 PS)) and increases the car range to 400 km (250 mi) under NEDC and allows quick charging. The Q210 would still be available, renamed as Q90. According to Renault, the battery delivers about 300 km (190 mi) on real driving conditions. Older Zoes using the battery would get a less significant range increase because of various design upgrades. Options to buy the battery would be available, and also revised lease plans.
In Z.E.40, available energy went up from about 22 kWh to 41 kWh, while the dimensions of the battery remained unchanged, with the weight increasing by only 15 kg (33 lbs) – from 290 to 305 kg (639 to 672 lb) (5%). Physically, Renault still uses 192 3.5 volts lithium cells (LG Chem) in 12 modules (16 cells per module) configuration:
In June 2019 Renault announced a new Zoe with a 52 kWh battery, increasing the range to 395 km (245 mi) under WLTP conditions. It comes with a 100 kW R135 electric motor and faster charging with the option of 50 kW DC capability.
Electrics And Drivetrain variants
First generation battery:
Thermals: air cooled
Total weight: 290 kg
Total capacity: 25,92 kWh (192 x 36 Ah x 3,75 V = 25,92 kWh)
Total cell weight: 165.12 kg (192 x 0.86 kg = 165.12 kg)
Second generation battery:
Thermals: air cooled
Total weight: 305 kg
Total capacity: 45.61 kWh (estimation by knowing the usable capacity)
Available capacity: 41 kWh
Cells: 192 cells, each with 63.35 Ah nominal capacity (estimation) and 3.75 V nominal voltage
Total cell weight: 180.12 kg (estimation by knowing the total battery weight)
Charging: type 2 (22 kW AC with 3-phase), or 43 kW 3-phase for Q90 variant
Third generation battery:
Thermals: air cooled
Total capacity: 55 kWh
Available capacity: 52 kWh
Total cell weight:
Charging: type 2 (22 kW AC with 3-phase) and CCS (50 kW)
In France, pricing of the Zoe with the 41 kWh battery starts at €23,600 (~ US$26,460) before any applicable government incentives (€6,300 or US$8,300), and without the purchase of the battery. The rental fee for the battery is €69 (~ US$77) per month for up to 7,500 km (4,700 mi) per year and €119 (~ US$133) per month for unlimited mileage. In Norway, pricing starts at 229,400 kroner (~ US$28,760), and the pricing of the variant with the original 22 kWh battery starts at 40,000 kroner (~ US$5,000) less than the 41 kWh variant. The small battery can be upgraded to the newer one, at a cost of around 3500 Euros for rented batteries.
In the UK, it has been possible to buy the Zoe with the battery, or lease the battery. Leasing the battery gives a free replacement if capacity falls under 80%.
The 2017 facelift added a Q90 fast charge option (full-speed 43 kW rapid charging). A full charge at 22 kW speed will take two hours and 40 minutes, with 80% of the range recovered in an hour and 40 minutes. The Q90, by comparison, takes 65 minutes to reach 80% capacity.
In February 2018, Renault introduced an updated version of the R90 motor, the R110, which upped power output to 80 kW (110 PS) while maintaining the same estimated economy and similar torque (225 N⋅m (166 lb⋅ft)). The R90 would still be available for sale. The price for cars equipped with the new motor would be slightly higher than those using the R90 version. The R110 will be the first Renault motor homologated under WLTP and sales would start by the end of the 2018 summer in Europe.
In 2019, Renault introduced the R135 motor (100 kW) in the ZE 50.
The Zoe received a five-star Euro NCAP 2013-rating. The score was:
Retail customer deliveries began in limited numbers in France in December 2012, and availability was increased during the first quarter of 2013. A total of 48 units were registered in France during December 2012, and cumulative sales reached 5,559 units through December 2013. The Zoe became the top selling all-electric vehicle in the country in January 2013, and kept the monthly lead through December 2013, representing 62.8% of electric car sales in the country during 2013. In addition, the Zoe became the best selling electric car in France accounting for registrations in the electric passenger car segment since 2010 through December 2013.
Renault Zoe Zero Emissions (ZE) badge
Deliveries in the UK began in March 2013, and Germany, Italy and Spain in April 2013. Cumulative global sales totaled 8,874 units through December 2013. Out of 8,792 cars sold in Europe through December 2013, 62.7% were sold in France (5,511). Germany was the second top selling market, with 1,019 units delivered through December 2013, followed by the Netherlands with 547 units registered.
The Renault Zoe was officially launched in the Norwegian market in April 2014, though retail deliveries began in late March. Unlike other European countries, the Zoe is sold in Norway with the battery pack included and there are no battery leasing options available. A total of 11,323 Zoes were sold globally in 2014. France continued as the top selling market with cumulative sales of 11,529 units, and the Zoe continued as the all-time best selling electric car in the country, with 5,970 units sold in 2014. Global sales reached the 10,000 unit mark in January 2014, and 25,000 in May 2015. The milestone of 50,000 units produced was reached in April 2016, while sales achieved the 50,000 unit milestone in June 2016.
With a record 10,406 units sold in 2015, the Zoe was again the top selling all-electric car in France, and continued as the best-selling electric car in the country ever. The Zoe, with 18,453 registrations, was the top selling pure electric car in Europe in 2015. The Zoe ranked as the world's 8th best-selling electric car in 2015. As of June 2016[update], France remained as the Zoe's top country market, with 27,155 units registered since its inception in 2012. Zoe sales in the French market represented 53% of global sales.
The Zoe ranked as the best-selling all-electric car in Europe for the second year in a row in 2016 with 21,735 units delivered, representing 21.2% of the segment sales that year. Also, the Zoe topped European sales in the broader plug-in electric car segment, ahead of the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, the top selling plug-in in the previous two years. In 2016 the Zoe ranked again as the world's 8th best-selling electric car. As of December 2016[update], the Zoe ranked as the world's all-time eighth best selling plug-in car.
Global sales totaled 31,932 units in 2017 and 40,517 in 2018. Global sales reached the 150,000 unit milestone in June 2019. Since inception, global sales totaled 181,893 units through December 2019 including both the passenger and cargo variants. The 200,000th Zoe produced rolled off the Flins plant in November 2019.
Global sales and top country markets
Renault Zoe sales by top national markets(1) 2012–2019
Technology blog TechDirt suggested that the Zoe's battery pack could contain Digital Rights Management software, on the grounds that the original battery lease agreements for the Zoe gave Renault the right to prevent the car's battery from charging at end of lease. Following an Electronic Frontier Foundation article which cited TechDirt's supposition to argue that this could render the vehicle unusable if the owner ceases payment or Renault withdraws support, Renault publicly denied any use of DRM technology through its official Twitter account
In May 2010, a Parisian woman named Zoe Renault commenced legal action to try and force Renault to rethink their choice of name amid claims it would lead to mocking jibes. In November 2010, a French judge ruled that Renault could use the name.
^ abcdCobb, Jeff (1 August 2016). "Renault Zoe and BMW i3 Join The 50,000 Sales Club". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 1 August 2016. As of June 2016[update], cumulative global sales of the top selling plug-in electric cars were led by the Nissan Leaf (about 225,000), Tesla Model S (over 129,000), Votl/Ampera family (over 117,000), Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV (about 107,000), Toyota Prius PHV (over 75,000), BYD Qin (56,191), Renault Zoe (51,193), and BMW i3 (almost 50,000).
^ abJeff Cobb (15 December 2015). "Tesla Model S Crossed 100,000 Sales Milestone This Month". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 17 December 2015. Accounting for global cumulative sales by December 2015, plug-in electric car sales are led by the Nissan Leaf (200,000), followed by Volt/Ampera family (104,000), and the Tesla Model S (100,000). As of November 2015[update], ranking next are the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (85,000), and the Prius Plug-in Hybrid (75,000), Mitsubishi i-MiEV family (~50,000), BYD Qin (45,275), BMW i3 (38,581), Renault Zoe (36,040), and the Ford Fusion Energi (26,742). Combines sales of the top 10 PEV models represent almost 50% of cumulative global PEV sales through November 2015)
^ abcdGroupe Renault (19 March 2020). "2019 Universal Registration Document"(PDF). Renault. Retrieved 22 May 2020. See pp. 24 and 39. Since the launch of the Renault electric program, the Group has sold more than 252,000 electric vehicles in Europe and more than 273,550 electric vehicles worldwide. Since inception, a total of 181,893 Zoe cars have been sold globally through December 2019. A total of 40,517 Zoes were sold in 2018 and 48,269 in 2019.
^"BBC News". BBC News. 2 March 2005. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
^"Car Pages". Car Pages. 1 March 2005. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
^ abcdGroupe Renault (January 2017). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 18 January 2017. Includes passenger and light utility variants. Click on "(décembre 2016)" to download the file "XLSX - 239 Ko" for CYTD sales in 2016, and open the tab "Sales by Model". Click on "+ Voir plus" (See more) to download the files "Ventes mensuelles du groupe (décembre 2011) (xls, 183 Ko)" "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 289 Ko)" - Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2013) (xlsx, 227 Ko)" - "XLSX - 220 Ko Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2014)" - "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2015)" to download the file "XLSX - 227 Ko" for 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 sales. Sales figures for 2013 were revised in the 2014 report
^ abGroupe Renault (January 2019). "Ventes Mensuelles - Statistiques commerciales mensuelles du groupe Renault" [Monthly Sales - Monthly sales statistics of the Renault Group] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 12 February 2019. Sales figures includes passenger and light utility variants. Click on link "XLSX - 142 Ko Ventes mensuelles du Groupe (Décembre 2018)" to download the file, and open the tab "Sales by Model" to access sales figures for 2017 and 2018.
^Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2015). "CO2-utslippet i desember 2014" [CO2 emissions in December 2014] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 14 February 2015. See graph: "Gjennomsnittlig CO2-utslipp for registrerte ney personbiler per modell 2014, til og med desember." A total of 433 new Renault Zoes were registered in Norway in 2014.
^Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2016). "CO2-utslippet i desember" [CO2 emissions in December] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2 March 2016. See graph: "Gjennomsnittlig CO2-utslipp for registrerte ney personbiler per modell 2015, til og med desember." A total of 1,634 new Zoes cars were registered in Norway in 2015.
^Bil Sweden (2 January 2015). "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" [New registrations in December 2014 (preliminar)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 28 June 2015. Download file "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" see table "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2014" with summary of plug-in passenger car registrations by model for 2014.
^Bil Sweden (4 January 2016). "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" [New Registrations December 2015 (final)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 4 March 2016. Download the pdf file "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" See table: Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar december 2015
^Bil Sweden (14 September 2018). "Nyregistreringar" [New registrations] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
^RAI (January 2016). "Nieuwverkoop Personenautos Per Merk/Model" [New passenger cars sales by brand/model 2015/12 2015 toal] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2016. A total of 223 Zoes cars were registered in the Netherlands in 2015".
^Vereinigung Schweizer Automobil-Importeure. "Autoverkäufe nach Modellen – Modellstatistik" [Passenger cars by model – Statistics by model] (in German). Auto Schweiz Suisse. Retrieved 3 March 2016. Under "ModellstatistikJanuar - Dezember 2015" download the xls file "ModellePW2015" for 2015 sales, and under "Modellstatistiken 2008–2014" click "2014 Statistik" to download the file "ModellePW2014" with sales by model for 2014 and "2013 Statistik" to download the file "ModellePW2013" with sales by model for 2013.
^Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2014). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2013 - Matriculaciones de automóviles" [Market data: December 2013 - Automobiles registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 19 April 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre13.xls (929KB)" with current month and cumulative sales for 2013.
^Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2015). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2014 - Matriculaciones de automóviles" [Market data: December 2014 - Automobiles registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 28 June 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre14.xls (929KB)*" with current month and cumulative sales during 2014.
^Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2016). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2015 - Matriculaciones" [Market data: December 2015 - Registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 4 March 2016.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre15.xls (929KB)*" with current month and cumulative sales for year 2015.
^De Danske Bilimportører (January 2016). "Statistik" [Statistics (Passenger cars by model)] (in Danish). Bilimp. Retrieved 4 March 2016. Select 2015/2014/2013 – "Hele året" for the corresponding year and click on "Pr. model" for details of sales by brand and model.